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The content theories of motivation




Petrova Mariia Vyacheslavovna

student, International Financial Faculty, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

Annotation: It is extremely important for the effective management of the organization is to understand the process of motivation. Nowadays, there are many scientific theories of motivation. As a rule, they are divided into content and procedural theories. We will discuss the first group and its main representatives and theories.

Ключевые слова: motivation, efficiency, ERG theory, two-factor theory, three needs theory.




Библиографическое описание: Petrova M.V. THE CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION [Текст] // Перспективы развития научных исследований в 21 веке: сборник материалов 7-й международной науч.-практ. конф., (г. Махачкала, 28 февраля, 2015г.) - Махачкала: Издательство "Апробация", 2015 – C.77-78


It is extremely important for the effective management of the organization is to understand the process of motivation. Motivation is closely related to human needs, which is the driving force for various actions. Nowadays, there are many scientific theories of motivation. As a rule, they are divided into content and procedural theories. The first focuses on human needs that motivate people to act. They are the following:

  1. A. Maslow's theory. American psychologist identifies five groups of needs arranged in hierarchical order: physiological needs, the need for safety and security needs of belonging and involvement, and recognition of the need for self-assertion and the need for self-expression. The meaning of this theory is that the person will seek to meet, especially, the need, for it in that particular moment would seem most important. In relation to the motivation was concluded: needs higher levels can not be motivated until you are satisfied with basic needs (physiological needs and security needs).
  2. C. Alderfer ERG motivation theory. In an attempt to line up Maslow's Theory of Needs with empirical studies, Alderfer's ERG Theory elicits three core requirements: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. According to Alderfer, the needs aren't in any order and any desire to fulfill a need can be activated at any point in time. This results in the lower level needs not requiring to be satisfied in order to satisfy a higher level need. Alderfer's ERG Theory can actually be utilized as a frustration-regression principle where an already satisfied lower level need can be "re-activated" when confronted with the impossibility of satisfying a higher level one.
  3. D.McClelland's Theory or Three Needs Theory, where he identified three motivators that he believed we all have: a need for achievement, a need for affiliation, and a need for power. People will have different characteristics depending on their dominant motivator. According to McClelland, these motivators are learned (which is why this theory is sometimes called the Learned Needs Theory) and, regardless of our gender, culture, or age, we all have three motivating drivers, and one of these will be our dominant motivating driver. This dominant motivator is largely dependent on our culture and life experiences.
  4. F. Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory or two-factor theory, which answers the question of what factors influence the s atisfaction and dissatisfaction of motivating human needs. Herzberg concluded that the processes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not linked. Factors that affect the attainment of satisfaction are not the factors that lead to increased dissatisfaction.
  5. D.McGregor’s Management Assumptions (Theory X and Theory Y)further developed the needs concept of Maslow and specifically applied it to the workplace. McGregor maintained that every manager made assumptions about their employees and adopted amanagement approach based upon these assumptions. He maintained there were two main categories and that managers adopted one or another.The first category, which he termed Theory X, he maintained was the dominant management approach, while Theory Y was completely opposite. McGregor advocated, the application of Theory Y would meet the needs of the organisation as wellas of the employees. He believed that Theory X met Maslows needs, whilst Theory Y also met the Growth Needs. Thus, according to the author, an enterprise will have more motivated employees in case of adopting Theory Y.

 

References:

1.N. Samochetova, “Importance Of Motivation In The Mechanism Of Management”, “The scientific community of students of XXI century. Economics”, 2014

 

 

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